As 2013 comes to a close, our columnists look back on the past year and make predictions for the upcoming year. In the December issue of SMT Magazine, Publisher Ray Rasmussen wraps up 2013 and discusses what we might expect to see in 2014. Dr. Jennie S. Hwang looks back on her predictions from last year and details where she got it right, and wrong. Rachel Short explains why your relationship with your stencil maker will be so important in 2014. And Michael Forddiscusses why he believes electronics manufacturing is experiencing its "teen" years: Full of expectation, but lacking capital.
As always, this month we feature columns by our team of experts, including Sjef van Gastel, Zulki Khan, and Karla Osorno.
This month, experts from Indium, Inventec, Vitronics, Micronic Mydata and BEST Inc. weigh in on soldering technologies and solutions, from reliability issues to position accuracy machines and alternatives to polyimide tape, and more!
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Videos: Real Time with…IPC APEX EXPO 2015: Brian Chung, Nordson Asymtek and Michael Ford, Mentor Graphics
We take a pause from covering technology trends, challenges, and next-generation solutions this month. Instead, we are focusing on our readers—to give a voice to their thoughts on the industry, companies, jobs, interests, and even pain points.
This month, experts from Flextronics, Ericsson AB, MTEK Consulting AB, and Speedline Technologies contribute to our features focusing on paste printing and component placement.
Miniaturization with the Help of Reduced Component-to-Component Spacing, by Jonas Sjoberg, et al., Dow Chemical Company
Solder Paste Printing: Quality Assurance Methodology, by Lars Bruno, Ericsson AB and Tord Johnson, MTEK Consulting AB
Enclosed Media Printing as an Alternative to Metal Blades, by Michael L. Martel, Speedline Technologies Inc.
SMT Quick Tips: Selecting an Automatic Pick-and-Place Machine, Part 3, by Robert Voigt, DDM Novastar
In this issue we look into the latest military and aerospace electronics technology trends, manufacturing challenges, and outlook, and how they impact the PCB assembly industry.
It’s no secret that packages are becoming denser all the time. But how does this affect the PCB assembly process? In this issue of SMT Magazine, our expert contributors explain the ins and outs of high-density packaging, as well as tips and techniques for dealing with packages chock full of ever-increasing levels of technology.
Hear from our contributors and columnists as they discuss best practices for assembling today’s high-density packages. Atotech’s Olaf Kurtz, Jürgen Barthelmes, Eckart Klusmann, Robert Rüther, and Stephen Kenny discuss strategies for using layers of cost-effective palladium. And a team from Altera Corporation and Amkor Technologypresent a case study that evaluates the use of molded flip-chip BGA packages in 28nm FPGAs.
As always, catch up on the latest columns from Sjef van Gastel, Rachel Short, Michael Ford, Karla Osorno, Zulki Khan, and much more.
This month, feature contributors from Keysight Technologies, XJTAG, Göpel and Sonoscan shed light on the trends and challenges of test and inspection.
High-Density Interconnect and Embedded Board Test, by Mark Lau, Keysight Technologies Inc.
Test Match—Partnering Specialist Boundary-Scan with ICT, by Robert Thompson, XJTAG
In-line Solder Penetration Testing with 3D X-ray Inspection, by Andreas Türk, Goepel Electronic
Acoustic Surface Flatness of Components and Boards, by Tom Adams, Sonoscan Inc.
Event Review: 6th Electronic Materials and Processes for Space Workshop (EMPS-6), by Barrie Dunn, EMPS
Interview: Inspection—the Last Line of Defense, by Barry Matties with Viscom’s Guido Bornemann
Across the Board: In-Circuit Pin Testing: An Excellent Potential Source of Value Creation, by Mitch Holtzer, Alpha
This issue of SMT Magazine looks into what makes a great leader, and the changing roles of the leader in the PCB assembly industry.
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SMT Magazine delves into alternatives to soldering this month, with experts from Lockheed Martin and Verdant Electronics, who offer their perspectives on this hot topic. In other articles, contributors from CML EurAsia offer their take on sourcing concepts for PCBs, and I-Connect007’s Richard Ayes interviews Jabil Circuits Inc on the topic of flexible manufacturing. Don’t miss this issue!
This month, SMT Magazine tackles the supply chain—from various approaches to making it work for you, to what history has shown about its many iterations, and how some suppliers are setting the bar very high for the future of supply chain management.
This issue of SMT Magazine looks into the impact of vias on PCB assemblies.
Thermal management is in the hot seat this month, with feature contributors from Koki Company Ltd., Christopher & Associates, Air-Vac Engineering, and Verdant Electronics, taking on a range of thermal management issues, including applications of lead-free alloy solder pastes, through-hole rework of thermally challenging components and assemblies, and so much more!
From our columns department, Jennie Hwang, Karla Osorno, Eric Klaver and Ray Rasmussen are on hand to enlighten and inform.
Don’t miss our highlights, with current headlines from throughout the industry and feature video from our Real Time with... series.
This month, we take on those pesky process failures—from soldering defects and device cleanliness, to challenges of mission-critical product and the link between head-in-pillow defects and warpage.
The War on Soldering Defects: HiP and NWO by Jason Fullerton
Declaring War on Failure in Electronics by Joe Fjelstad
Collaboration: OEM & EMS to Combat HiP Defects by Alex Chan et al.
Case Study: Detecting Process Defects by Bob Willis
Interview — Stencils: Why They Still Matter by Barry Matties
A Letter from the New Editor by Stephen Las Marias
Don't Allow Standards to Get the Better of You by Michael Ford
Selecting a Reflow Oven, Part 1 by Robert Voigt
Supply Chain Risk Mitigation Applications for the Grey Market by Stephan Halper
In this issue, we look into the challenges for sales and marketing executives in the PCB assembly industry, and the key attributes of a sales person, and provide effective sales strategies to use to be successful in this industry.
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This month, Trace Labs’ Renee Michalkiewicz covers the corrosion and reliability characteristics of fluxes; Nihon Superior supplies a comprehensive analysis of lead-free solder joint reliability and Cisco offers a complete look at predicting pad crater failures. Steve Williams and BFK Solutions round out our line-up of features!
Don’t miss new Real Time with… video content from HKPCA and productronica 2013!
The theme for the June issue of SMT Magazine is high-reliability with a focus on standards and specifications; counterfeit components; certification; security, testing, and quality assurance issues.
Read in-depth articles from the best in the industry including Ed Habtour, U.S. Army Material Systems Analysis Activity, and Cholmin Choi, Michael Osterman, and Abhijit Dasgupta, CALCE. The feature article presents a novel approach to improve reliability in U.S. Army vehicles. Lavanya Rammohan, Frost & Sullivan, explains the EMS provider’s role in combating counterfeit components.
As always, the June issue also includes several columns from our industry experts, including Derek Snider, Michael Ford, Rachel Miller-Short and Karla Osorno.
This month, SMT Magazine is packed with highlights on how the latest technological advances in automotive electronics are driving innovations in the electronics assembly, testing and inspection industries.
Feature — Automotive EMS: Going Beyond Assembly
Interview — Big Strategies for Success
Feature Interview — Experience is Key
Interview — The Demands on Automated Fluid Dispensing
Feature Interview — Addressing the Need for Reliable, Accurate Inspection Results
Feature Interview — Choosing the Right Conformal Coating
Feature Interview — Driving Innovation
Feature Interview — Automotive Electronics Driving Innovations in Test
Feature — Selecting a Reflow Oven, Part 2
This month, we look into the impact of plating and surface finishing in PCB assemblies. These processes especially effect solderability and solder joint reliability.
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In Part 2 of our assembly process series, SMT Magazine helps make the connections! This month, we dig deeper into the no-clean vs. water-soluble solder paste argument, the overstress of components during the soldering process, the feasibility of low/no-silver solder pastes, the influence of microstructure on bismuth lead-free solders, and high-temperature assembly materials.
Plus: IPC APEX EXPO preview!
The May issue of SMT Magazine focuses on soldering issues and features authors from Rehm Thermal Systems and Balver Zinn who examine the surface tension and load-carrying capacities of solder. Seth J. Homer and Dr. Ron Lasky of Indium Corporation discuss ways to reduce voiding in QFN packages.
Additional articles and columns from industry experts, including, Dr. Jennie Hwang, Zulki Khan, Sjef van Gastel, Karla Osorno, and new columnist Rachel Short can be found in the issue as well.
In this issue, we offer strategies and technologies that will help electronics assemblers reduce cycle times in their processes to improve their efficiencies and increase their productivity.
Value Stream Mapping: Operationalizing Lean Manufacturing,by Erwin Patrocinio
Choosing the Right Component to Reduce Cycle Times ,Interview with Edward Neff
Cycle Time Reduction in the Eye of AOI, Interview with Norihiko Koike
Reducing Cycle Times with Innovative Bonding Solutions, Interview with Gudrun Weigel
Technologies to Enable Quick-Turn PCB Assemblies, by Khurrum Dhanji
Process Improvements for Cycle Time Reduction, Interview with Randall Williams
Is Automation the Answer to Cycle Time Reduction? Interview with George Liu
Inspection Innovations to Reduce Cycle Time, Interview with Guido Bornemann
The Need for Speed by Stephen Las Marias
Reducing Print Cycle Times by Mitch Holtzer and Lourenco Nampo
Cycle Time Reduction with WORK, Part Iby Steve Williams
In this issue we highlight some of the latest technologies aimed at addressing the current manufacturing challenges in the electronics assembly industry.
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This month, our cover story from Shea Engineering Services probes the stencil manufacturing process, including stencil printing experiments. Also featured this month: Testing Intermetallic Fragility on ENIG upon Addition of Limitless Cu (Universal Instruments Corp.); Making Sense of Accuracy, Repeatability and Specification for Automated Fluid Dispensing (Nordson ASYMTEK); Big Ideas on Miniaturisation(DEK).
Don’t miss new Real Time with… video content from productronica 2013, SMTA and more!
The April issue of SMT Magazine addresses SMT Assembly Processes, including stencil paste printing/dispensing, component handling, ESD control, component placement, and odd-form placement.
The issue features 3M's James T. Adams, explaining how to find the perfect cover tape; Dr. Bill Coleman, vice president of technology at Photo Stencil, addressing the stencil printing of small apertures; Ricky Bennett and Eric Hanson covering low surface energy coatings; and many more articles and columns from industry experts, including, Zulki Khan, Eric Klaver, Karla Osorno, and Michael Ford.
This month, we look at how the Industrial Internet of Things (IoT), data, and analytics can help electronics assemblers take their manufacturing processes to the next level.
The SMT Internet of Things—Back to Basics by Michael Ford
Industry 4.0: Implications for the Asia Paciﬁc Manufacturing Industry by Krishnan Ramanathan
Improving Production Efﬁciencies with Better Data Strategies Interview with Bill Moradkhan
Connecting the Enterprise Interview with Mike Hannah
Managing Big Data from an Analog World by Chandran Nair
Made in USA and Total Cost: Six Ways U.S. Sourcing Saves Money by Gary Burnett
Streamlining PCB Assembly and Test NPI with Shared Component Libraries by Pat McGoff
The New Industrial Era by Stephen Las Marias
A Look at the Theory Behind Tin Whisker Phenomena, Part 3 by Dr. Jennie S. Hwang
Selecting a Through-Hole Soldering System, Part 1 by Robert Voigt
We take a look into the different challenges that assemblers face when dealing with flex circuits, and highlights strategies to address them in this issue.
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In Part 3 of our assembly process series, SMT Magazine uncovers what happens after the soldering process in an issue devoted to cleaning and coating. How clean is clean? Which cleaning process is best suited for which technology? These questions and more are addressed this month by experts from University of Denmark, AIM Solder and NexLogic.
Plus, show coverage from IPC APEX EXPO, including interviews, overviews, pictures and more!
The March issue of SMT Magazine looks at the industry’s many environmental issues, including the impact of legislation with a focus on RoHS and REACH compliance and enforcement, ITAR compliance, conflict minerals, and corporate social responsibility.
Also included in this issue is our exclusive IPC APEX EXPO 2013 post-show coverage. Our veteran team of guest editors and staff bring you the latest from the show floor, including new technologies and products, a review of key panel discussions, and, of course, our in-depth Real Time with… video interviews.
The spotlight this month is on industry associations, their goals, pivotal roles in technology advancements in EMS and SMT industries, and how they are helping their members on their journey to manufacturing success.
SMTA: Working Hard for the Global Industry Interview with Bill Barthel
A Closer Look at SMTA Q&A with Tanya Martin
PC: Connecting Electronics Industries Q&A with John Mitchell
SMART Group: The Guiding Inﬂuence in the Electronics Industry with Keith Bryant
OEM Applications: MacDermid’s OEM Director Embraces Renewed Focus with Lenora Toscano
VDMA Productions: Pushing Forward the German Electronics Manufacturing Industry with Dr. Eric Maiser
iNEMI: Leading the Way to Successful Electronics Manufacturing with Bill Bader
Digitization on the Horizonby Jorey Guzman
Low-Temperature Thick Film Pastes Permit Lead-Free Soldering by Steven Grabey
EMS Providers: Maintaining Competitiveness and Seeking Signiﬁcance by Frederick Blancas
Observations from productronica 2015 by Stephen Las Marias
No Time for a Board Spin? Selective Solder Mask Removal by Bob Wettermann
Selecting a Wave Soldering System, Part 2 by Robert Voigt
It is of the utmost importance that the soldering process should be perfect. But soldering is just too complex a process, and further complicating the situation, the requirements and technologies vary between our industry’s market segments. This month, we look into some of the different factors and challenges impacting yield when it comes to soldering, and provides strategies on addressing them.
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Alejandro Castellanos, et al of Flextronics explains how this company uses X-ray inspection to fight head-in-pillow defects. Ronald Frosch of AT&S discusses a novel method for forecasting drop shock performance. Rob Humphrey of XJTAG looks at a variety of ways to achieve signal integrity in test fixtures. Alan Albee of Teradyne focuses on the changing economics of in-circuit test. And NK Chari of Agilentexplains solid management practices for PCBA test.
You’ll also find an article by Dan Hoz of Mentor Graphics, as well as columns by Dr. Jennie Hwang, Ray Rasmussen, Todd Kramer, and Sjef van Gastel.
All this, plus industry news highlights and upcoming events, can be found in this month’s issue of SMT Magazine.
The February issue of SMT Magazine addresses cleaning and coating: Conformal coating inspection methods; the effective removal of OA flux residues; plasma polymerization for conformal coating; benchtop PCB cleaning; and an in-depth comparison of conformal coatings.
This issue also features our exclusive IPC APEX EXPO 2013 Pre-show Coverage, which includes information on technical conference sessions, standards development meetings, certification programs, IPC Buzz Sessions, a Real Time with... video overview, and much more.
We examined the medical market to learn what impact it has on the electronics industry and where it might be in five years. This issue also covers key trends driving medical electronics and the challenges and opportunities in the industry.
Why Medtech Manufacturers Should Automate Fluid Dispensing Operations by Kelvin Fernandez
Top 10 Factors to Consider When Selecting a Medical EMS Company by M. Ohady & D. Estes
Medical EMS: Opportunities Abound by Frederick Blancas
Valtronic Highlights Vital Components in Medical Electronics Manufacturing an Interview with Jay Wimer
Medical Electronics: Risks and Opportunities for Electronics Manufacturers an Interview with Brian Morrison
The Jefferson Project: Educating the Next Generation in Applied Manufacturing Sciences (Part 1) Tom Borkes Interview
Lost in the System: How Traceability Can Solve the Problem of Counterfeit Materials by Michael Ford
Selecting a Wave Soldering System, Pt. 3 by Robert Voight
Vapor Phase Technology is a Viable Solution, but Carries a Learning Curve by Steven Frazer
This month, we explore the challenge of finding the right talent in the electronics manufacturing industry.
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It must be summer, because this month, SMT Magazine is turning up the heat on thermal management! Features include Gregor Langer, Markus Leitgeb, et al., who look into advanced thermal management solutions for high-power applications.
Carlos Montemayor investigates the high-temperature reliability limits for silicone adhesives, and Mark Challingsworth examines trends in thermal management for electronic circuits.
What better way to start the New Year than with a focus on management?
The January issue of SMT Magazine has every aspect covered, with articles from Components Direct’s Steve Martin addressing the impact of e-commerce on the component supply chain; George Henning of OCM Manufacturing advising how to choose between turnkey and consignment manufacturing; ESCATEC’s Daniel Pfeifer explaining how to give your global company a local advantage; and much more.
As always, read the latest columns from Editor Ray Rasmussen, Dr. Jennie S. Hwang; Karla Osorno; and more.
This issue of SMT Magazine features the latest technology and process developments happening in the SMT, PCB assembly and EMS industries, and what to expect in the future.
New Year Outlook: Electronics Hardware by Dr. Jennie S. Hwang
High-Reliability Interconnects for High-Power LED Assembly by Ravi M. Bhatkal, Ph.D.
EMS: Quo Vadis? (Where are you Going?) by Frederick Blancas
Two-Print Stencil Solutions for Flip Chip/SMT Assembly by William Coleman
Efficiency, Energy and Convenience: Driving New Solutions and Markets Interview with Craig Hunter
Greener Cleaning by Mike Konrad
Magnetically Aligned Novel ACA Revolutionizes 3D Chip Stacking by Dr. S. Manian Ramkumar
Articles and Columns
Editor’s Note - New Paradigms by Stephen Las Marias
Electrolube: We Like Problems! by Pete Starkey
The Jefferson Project, Part 2: Automation as a Counterweight to Low Labor-Rate Assembly Interview with Tom Borkes
Rework Site Printing using Mini Stencils—Plastic Adhesive vs. Metal by Bob Wettermann
Industry 4.0: Creating a Standard with Dan Hoz and Ofer Lavi Ben David
This month we look into the myriad challenges in inspection, and highlights the need for newer AOI technologies to improve production yields and ensure reliability.
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In the November issue of SMT, feature article contributors Paul Wood (OK International/Metcal), Joerg Nolte (Ersa GmbH) and Bob Wettermann (BEST Inc.)deliver updates on the latest rework and repair processes and equipment.
Non-feature contributions include technical articles from Plasmatreat, Henkel, and Sonoscan. Plus, fresh Real Time with... videos straight from SMTAI 2014.
This month, SMT Magazine features strategies for building the highest yield on the lowest cost possible to provide the greatest value to your customers.
In this issue, we look into the latest technology trends, new manufacturing challenges, and outlook for the military and aerospace markets, and how they are impacting the PCB assembly industry.
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In this issue we focus on what's current and what the future holds for PEC.
Dr. Harry Zervos of IDTechEx presents a case study on printed electronics suppliers, cost structures, and challenges. Sumit Kumar Pal of Frost & Sullivan's Technical Insights explains how traditional processes are enabling next-gen technologies such as printed electronics.
And columnist Joe Fjelstad of Verdant Electronics puts printed electronics in historical perspective, discussing PEC's potential future uses and inherent limitations. I-Connect007 editor Richard Ayes discusses printed electronics assembly with Rafael Nestor Mantaring of Integrated Micro-Electronics Inc.
You’ll also find an article on inline AXI technology by a new contributor, Ondrej Simecek of Test Research Inc., as well as regular columns by Michael Ford and Ray Rasmussen.
All this, plus industry news highlights and upcoming events, can be found in this month's issue of SMT Magazine.
Our year-end issue takes a look forward to 2015, with features from Mentor Graphics’ Michael Ford, Alpha Circuit’s Yash Sutariya, Sanmina’s Mulugeta Abtew, and IMI’s Frederick Blancas. Don’t miss this Outlook 2015 issue that addresses the supply chain, SMT advancements, production planning, and more!
This month, we take a look into the importance of workforce training and education on the continuous improvement of the PCB assembly process.
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Scott Zerkle of Yamaha Motor IM leads off our line-up of features this month, with A Robot’s Place in SMT. Our comprehensive coverage of automation for assembly also includes Mentor’s Michael Ford, Zentech’s Waleid Jabai, Integrated Micro-Electronics’ Michael Hansson, and more!
This month, you’ll find feature articles by Dr. Peter Harrop of IDTechEx, and Joe Fjelstad of Verdant Electronics, as well as an article on alternative solvents by Rajat Basu and Ryan Hulse of Honeywell International. We’re also introducing a new columnist, Robert Voigt of DDM Novastar, who discusses how to select the right SMT equipment.
The Rise of Structural Electronics by Dr. Peter Harrop
3D Printing in Electronics—a Perspective by Joe Fjelstad
An Alternative Solvent with Low Global Warming Potential, by Rajat Basu and Ryan Hulse
The Way I See It: The Tipping Point, by Ray Rasmussen
SMT Quick Tips: How to Select a Stencil Printer, by Robert Voigt
The Short Scoop: Stencil Printing in PCB Cavities, by Rachel Miller-Short
There are many challenges when it comes to the rework and repair of PCB assemblies. This month, our technical authors highlight the strategies they suggest to improve the process.
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We’ve seen a myriad of developments in lead-free solder and surface finishes since RoHS went into effect seven years ago. But the state of lead-free changes almost every day. In the October issue of SMT Magazine, our contributors and columnists explore the often confusing world of lead-free processes. Nihon Superior’s Tetsuro Nishimura discusses the bleeding edge of lead-free soldering. And a case study by Continental Corporation’s José Mar’a, Serv’n Olivares and Cynthia Gómez Aceves details how TOF SIMS analysis helped provide insight into wetting issues with lead-free HASL processes.
As always, this month we feature columns by our team of experts, including Ray Rasmussen, Michael Ford, Sjef van Gastel, Rachel Short, and Zulki Khan. All this, industry news highlights, and upcoming events can be found in this month’s issue of SMT Magazine.
Technologists have studied tin whiskers for decades, but the proliferation of lead-free electronics has pushed these microscopic fibers to the forefront of assembly challenges. This month, the mitigation of tin whiskers is tackled, with articles by Dr. Ron Lasky (Indium); Dr. Viktor Karpov (Univ. of Toledo); Dr. Jennie Hwang (H-Technologies); Dr. Michael Osterman (CALCE); Andrzej Czerwinski (Institute of Electron Technology); Scott Sentz (AEM); and Dave Hillman (Rockwell Collins).
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This month, we address the challenges, best practices, and critical factors to consider in solder paste printing amid tighter tolerances and smaller pitches, lines and spaces.
Featured Interviews by Stephen Las Marias, I-Connect007
The Solder Paste Factor in Printing – with Mitch Holtzer
Solder Paste Printing: Challenges and Best Practices – with Watson Tseng
Solder Jet Printing: Keeping Up with the Challenges – with Thomas Bredin
Solder Paste Dispensing: Breaking the Limits of Printing – with Eric Gu
SPI Parameter Considerations for Tighter Tolerances – with JM Peallat and CC Hee
Improving the Solder Paste Printing Cycle Times – with Adam Sim
Solder Paste Printing: A User’s Perspective – with J. Apolinario, A. Bantigue and R. Bebe
Solder Paste Printing: The Reliability Factor – with Knoll Evangelista
Editor’s Note: Solder Paste Printing Exploration, by Stephen Las Marias, I-Connect007
Across the Board: Pad Defined vs. Mask Defined: Which Method is Optimal? by Mitch Holtzer, Alpha Assembly Solutions
Jumping Off the Bandwagon: The Production Engineering Student as Customer, by Tom Borkes, The Jefferson Institute
Knocking Down the Bone Pile: To Bake or Not to Bake (in Rework)—That is the Question, by Bob Wettermann, BEST Inc.
SMT Quick Tips: Selecting a Selective Soldering System, Part 3, by Robert Voigt, DDM Novastar
SPECIAL INSERT: IPC's IMPACT Washington, D.C. 2016, Who, What, Where, and Why, by Patty Goldman, I-Connect007
3D Solder Joint Reconstruction on SMD based on 2D Images, by P. Vitoriano and T. Amaral, Visteon
There are many perspectives and challenges in creating perfect solder joints. We present parameters and strategies that can help assemblers improve their soldering process to achieve reliable solder joints.
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The repair and rework of packages is becoming more complex and expensive, especially with today’s advanced packages. In the November issue of SMT Magazine, our contributors and columnists get to the bottom of rework, modification and repair. Air-Vac Engineering’s Brian Czaplicki discusses the advanced rework of bleeding-edge packaging systems. And an article by Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s Reza Ghaffarian, Ph.D., details the rework and reliability of high-I/O CGA assemblies.
As always, this month we feature columns by our team of experts, including Ray Rasmussen, Dr. Jennie Hwang, Karla Osorno, and Eric Klaver.
All this, industry news highlights, and upcoming events can be found in this month’s issue.
Industry experts from Indium, Mentor Graphics, and Alpha Circuit are on hand this month to guide us through issues related to thermal management, including latest trends, alternative approaches and streamlining PCB thermal design.
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This month, we focus the discussion on test and inspection technologies that help identify PCB assembly defects for the improvement of associated manufacturing processes.
This month we look into the issues facing assemblers when dealing with HDI boards, and highlight why close collaboration and communication with the designers right from the very start will ensure assembly success.
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